State Bid Request Reinforces Use of “Johnson” Plant Analysis Method

Surveying process Chautauqua Lake Association uses backed by state bid specifications

The following is from a news release from the Chautauqua Lake Association. Douglas Conroe is the Executive Director.

LAKEWOOD, NY December 2, 2019 – The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) recently issued bid invitations for a three-year, state project that requires that an aquatic plant-surveying method used for almost two decades to assess Chautauqua Lake is utilized for the state project.

This bid process reinforces the scientific value and relevance of the so-called Johnson method of testing plant density and variety. The method is named for Robert Johnson, who started his work for the Chautauqua Lake Association (CLA) in 2002 in his role as Cornell Ponds Manager. He has since retired from Cornell and is now a principal with Racine-Johnson Aquatic Ecologists of Ithaca, NY.

“Robert Johnson has performed aquatic plant species and density monitoring services for the CLA since 2002,” said Chautauqua Lake Association Board of Directors President Paul O. Stage. “His surveying has uniformly utilized a rake-toss method that produced a valuable historical database from which plant-management decisions have been guided. We are very encouraged that the DEC is recognizing the value of his work and has endorsed his method for use statewide.”

The rake-toss method, which is surprisingly not utilized by some parties involved in Chautauqua Lake assessments, is now known as the Point Intercept-Rake Drag with Plant Species Percentages Method. More about the process and its results are available in the Racine-Johnson reports posted on the CLA’s website,

Johnson is a member and former president of the Northeast Aquatic Plant Management Society, and served on its board of directors and as editor of its newsletter for several years. He received the highest professional award from the plant society, the Aquatic Plant Science Award, in 2005 and in 2017. It recognized his scientific contributions to understanding the ecology of the non-native invasive species Eurasian watermilfoil and Hydrilla.

 “We appreciate having Bob Johnson’s independent plant-monitoring services available to the lake,” said CLA Executive Director Douglas Conroe. “He is providing us with valuable data about Chautauqua Lake’s rich species-diverse aquatic plant community. Chautauqua Lake continues to be an environmental treasure for the community, which his data evidences. The DEC’s endorsement of his utilized-plant surveying method simply reinforces the value of his work.”

Racine-Johnson also performs third-party consultant herbicide-monitoring programs for the DEC and other lake associations. Johnson played a long-term, third-party role in evaluating SOLitude Lake Management’s herbicide treatments for Lamoka/Wanita Lakes near Tyrone, NY for 17 years and Cazenovia Lake for 11 years. He also is the lead scientist for the local and state efforts to halt the spread of the growth of the non-native invasive Hydrilla verticillata discovered on August 5, 2011 in the Cayuga Inlet of southern Cayuga Lake at Ithaca.

More about the Chautauqua Lake Association

The Chautauqua Lake Association, a non-profit 501(c)3 corporation, is the only organization carrying out actual lake maintenance work. Its all-volunteer Board of Directors is made up of men and women from all walks of life. Involving the collaboration of volunteers, businesses, individuals, governments, and foundations the CLA can perform operations at a cost that has proven to be the least expensive option for lake maintenance services. 

Threatened Plant Species Prevalent in Chautauqua Lake

Tray of various aquatic plants.
Aquatic plants collected in Chautauqua Lake. Photo by Racine-Johnson Aquatic Ecologists.

Report find 22 aquatic plant species, one threatened and concentrated in South Basin

LAKEWOOD, NY June 19, 2019 – A late-spring third-party survey found 22 species of aquatic plants in Chautauqua Lake, one of which is a threatened species under state regulations that is concentrated in the lake’s South Basin.

Racine-Johnson Aquatic Ecologists of Ithaca, NY, prepared the report, Late Spring 2019 Presence and Abundance of Aquatic Plants in Chautauqua Lakefor the Chautauqua Lake Association. It found that Potamogeton hilli, commonly called Hill’s pondweed, exists throughout the lake.

New York State classifies Hill’s pondweed as a threatened species and found it prevalent in both lake basins, though scientists catalogued the greatest concentration lake-wide in the southern end of the South Basin. The CLA presented the 114-page report’s findings to the state Department of Environmental Conservation this week.

“The importance of having a robust healthy macrophyte [aquatic plant] community in the littoral zone [the area where plants grow] of Chautauqua Lake is essential to the overall health of the lake,” the report stated. “A decrease in macrophyte species diversity, richness and abundance has the potential to lead to a decline of the world-class, warm-water fishery dependent upon thehabitat that aquatic plants provide.”

The report profiled plant species in the lake since record keeping started in 1937, observing that the mean frequency during that time is 24 species.

Racine-Johnson, and its predecessor Cornell Ponds, performed annual lake-plant monitoring under contract to the Chautauqua Lake Association since 2002. Racine-Johnson executes scientific plant studies on lakes throughout New York and beyond. The firm is also well known for its work in understanding the role that herbivores serve in controlling the invasive Eurasian watermilfoil, one of two invasive species the report found in the lake.

Sampling Team collects and sorts aquatic plants.

“Eurasian watermilfoil is well established and widespread in the lake; however, a suite of invertebrate herbivores attacks the plant at various times of the year, significantly limiting growth of this non-native,” according to the report.

“The extremely large populations of insect herbivores in Chautauqua Lake, documented yearly since 2002 by Cornell University and Racine-Johnson Aquatic Ecologists, provide the lowest- cost, most-effective control possible of excessive growth of Eurasian watermilfoil,” the report continued.

“Therefore, conservation of these essential biological control agents is paramount in maintaininga healthy Chautauqua Lake.”

Excessive macrophyte growth remains as an ongoing concern . . .as it has for at least the last 100 years.

Late Spring 2019 Presence and Abundance of Aquatic Plants in Chautauqua La

“Excessive macrophyte growth remains as an ongoing concern for stakeholders of Chautauqua Lake, as it has for at least the last 100 years,” the report noted. “The lake is eutrophic [very nutrient rich] and shallow eutrophic lakes generally fall into a macrophyte [aquatic plant] or algae-dominated waterbody. Today, an algae-dominated lake would likely have large numbers of harmful algae or cyanobacteria.”

“The lake requires a macrophyte-dominated littoral zone that competes against an overabundance of cyanobacteria [HAB] to remain a healthy ecosystem with good water clarity and an excellent warm-water fishery.”

The report explained how the aquatic plants take up nutrients and block wave action that would cause nutrients to be more prevalent throughout the water column, which in turn results in growth of troublesome blue-green or cyanobacteria HAB blooms.

In describing the publicly perceived excessive plant growth, the report noted that the “area withmedium and dense growth of macrophytes is actually very small in relation to the total surface area of Chautauqua Lake.” It further noted that “a large percentage of the littoral area has only atrace occurrence of plant growth.”

The report also addressed the role that the invasive Curly-leaf pondweed serves in Chautauqua Lake.

“The plant provides important early season habitat for fish and invertebrates, while slowing or preventing excessive early growth of Eurasian watermilfoilelodea and coontail. Curly-leaf’searly growth outcompetes or displaces other species in the competition for space, food, or other resources, reducing early growth of Eurasian watermilfoil and native species, thereby saving management monies.”

The plant begins to die in late spring and disappears in early summer.

“Chautauqua Lake’s macrophyte community is species diverse and overwhelmingly dominated by desirable plant species,” the report concludes.

The complete report can be viewed on the lake association’s reports tab of its

New York State awards CLA $100,000 to thwart new invasive plant species

The report’s release comes shortly after the announcement that New York State awarded the CLA $100,000 to thwart new invasive plant species through the Watercraft Steward Program of boat-launch inspections.

The program allows the CLA to provide watercraft stewards on boat launches on Chautauqua Lake, Cassadaga Lake and Lake Erie. In 2018, the CLA’s watercraft stewards interacted with 10,326 boaters, inspecting 5,685 boats of all sizes, shapes and propulsion methods.

The DEC prohibits boats and equipment from entering or leaving DEC launch sites without first being drained and cleaned.

“This is a smart, effective program that focuses on prevention and proactivity,” said Douglas Conroe, executive director of the Chautauqua Lake Association. “We’re grateful for the funding because this program has already proven its preventative value.”

The grant is for three years. In 2019 and 2020, the CLA will combine it with $39,900 from a Chautauqua County Occupancy Tax-funded grant in 2019 and a $15,000 Lake Erie Watershed Protection Alliance grant. Total program for the CLA is $194,800

This most recent funding, however, is unrelated to revenue shortfalls from New York and local municipalities that means the CLA can only hire 27 workers instead of 42, as in 2018, to harvest and clean the lake this summer.

The CLA’s lake services operating budget for 2019 is $640,000, down from $730,000 last summer. New York contributed $150,000 last year, but nothing toward the 2019 operating budget. The villages of Bemus Point and Celoron, and the towns of Chautauqua and Ellery, also contributed nothing this summer.

More about the Chautauqua Lake Association

The Chautauqua Lake Association traces its beginnings to 1946 and its actual formation in 1953. The current focus is to perform environmentally sound plant-control practices, undertake scientific monitoring and relevant research, service the shoreline in promotion of maintaining healthy conditions, and promote educational efforts to enhance public understanding of lake association methods and lake needs. MORE